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Abstract

Name

TopNet

Description

A semi-distributed hydrological model for simulating catchment water balance and river flow.

Local Contact

Dr. Christian Zammit

Wiki URL

https://teamwork.niwa.co.nz/display/IFM/Topnet

Scope

Intended biophysical domains

Soil-plant-animal
Streams and rivers

Does the model address water quality

No

Water quality parameters

 

Intended purpose

Research purposes: climate change and land use change effects on hydrological cycle 
Application purposes: Simulation of catchment water balances and river flow, and flood forecasting

Intended types of user

Highly trained personnel

Intended breadth of user base (in-house specialist to widespread)

In-house specialist

Geographic range limitations

Mostly used in New Zealand, but with applications overseas, such as in the United States of America and Chile

Spatial resolution

Sub-catchment (e.g., 10km2)

Spatial extent

Medium or large catchment/aquifer/river network/lake/estuary or coastal embayment

Steady state or dynamic

Dynamic

Temporal resolution

From hourly to daily

Temporal extent

Unlimited

Spatial types

Lumped spatially

Spatial dimensions

3D

Supermodel Membership

If part of a supermodel, describe

Inputs

Climate

Climate data

Topography and topology

Surface topography

Soils

Soil name or map

Landcover/use

Crop and stock types and attributes

Groundwater

 

Water quantity/quality flux and state

 

Input data required: old items to be removed once transferred to new template

Climate (e.g., rainfall and temperature), topography (e.g. slope and river network), soil type, and vegetation type

Outputs

Climate

 

Topography and topology

 

Soils

 

Landcover/use

 

Groundwater

 

Water quantity/quality flux and state

Drainage from soil
Surface runoff into stream

Ouptut data produced: old items to be removed once transferred to new template

Infiltration excess runoff, saturation excess runoff, base flow, drainage from the soil to the saturated zone (recharge), percent saturated area, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration

Development history

Main developers

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research

Other development organisations

 

Current custodian organisation

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research

Funding mechanism

Government funded

State of development

stable release

First development year

1997

Latest release year

2011

Latest version

Version 11

Current development activity

Coupling with a glacier component and developing a retrospective streamflow assimilation scheme

Likely longevity

Currently funded and likely to remain supported

Cost and IP

Purchase or licence cost

N/A

Support cost

N/A

Licence type

N/A

Commercial or IP constraints on use

Need permission for commercial use

Open/Closed Source

Closed Source

Applications

Locations

Organisations

Description

Publications

New Zealand

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research

The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research was commissioned by the Statistics New Zealand to estimate eleven components of the national and regional water balance of New Zealand for each of the sixteen years from 1 July 1994 to 30 June 2010.

Henderson et al. (2011)

Technical considerations

Languages used

Fortran and C

Is a formal API defined?

No

Is the model engine separated from the user interface?

No

User Interface

Command Line

Techniques/methods for data input

In order to use TopNet, the user needs to have all the input data compiled.

Input data formats

NetCDF

Techniques/methods for data output

The TopNet generates the output data

Output data formats

NetCDF

Techniques/methods for data visualisation

N/A

Techniques/methods for user interaction and control

Model run automatically based on the information from a configuration file

Methods included for calibration and uncertainty

(1) Manual calibration 
(2) Monte Carlo simulation: a large number of different parameter sets are tried and the best set selected based on an objective function (e.g. the Nash Sutcliffe criteria). 
(3) NLFit: a parameter fitting Windows-based program that uses optimal parameter search algorithms.

Operating system / platforms

Linux
MS Windows

Quality of code and systems engineering

N/A

Willingness of developers to collaborate

Good

Stability

Good

Availability of documentation of theory and code/software

User manual and help files available on the NIWA website ( https://one.niwa.co.nz/display/HYPRO/TOPNET+++Model).

User information

What do users have to learn?

Operation of Linux system and basic understanding of hydrology

Ease of learning

Difficult

Ease of use

Difficult

Availability and completeness of user documentation/manuals

Available online and in papers

Availability of support

Good

Willingness of developers to support users

Good

Availability of user forums

None

Other information

Linkages to other models

No

Notes

 

Name

URL

Description

 

https://one.niwa.co.nz/display/HYPRO/TopNet

NIWA website

References

Ref

Description

Henderson, R., S. Singh, R. Woods, C. Zammit (2011), Surface water components of New Zealand’s National Water Accounts, 1995-2010, NIWA Client Report (in review).